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成教信息:成人高考专升本考试英语重点词组(

at a loss 困惑不解,茫然不知所措

at all (用于否定句)丝毫(不),一点(不)

at all costs 不惜任何代价,无论如何

at all events 不管怎样,无论如何

at any rate 无论如何,至少

at best 充其量,至多

at ease 舒适(地),安逸(地)

at first 最初,起初

at hand 近在手边,在附近

at large 详尽的,普遍的;未被获取的

at last 终于,最后

at least 至少

at most 至多,不超过

at no time 从不,决不

at once 马上,立刻;同时,一起

at present 目前,现在

at the cost/expense of 以……为代价

at the end 最终,终了时

at the moment 此刻,目前

at the same tine 同时;然而,不过

at the sight of 一看见……就

laugh at 因……而发笑;嘲笑

look at 看着;看待

by accident 偶然

by all means 尽一切办法,务必

by and by 不久,迟早

by chance 偶然,碰巧

by far ……得多;最多

by means of 用,凭借

by mistake 错误地,无意中(做错了某事)

by no means 决不,绝没有

by oneself 单独地,独自地

by the way 顺便地,附带说说

by way of 经过,经由;通过……的方法

learn by heart 记住,背诵

little by little 一点一点地,逐渐地

side by side 肩并肩地,一起

for ever 永远

for example 例如

for good 永久地

for instance 例如

for the sake of 为了……的利益

for the time being 暂时,眼下

account for 说明(原因等)

allow for 考虑到,顾及

as for/to 至于,关于

ask for 请求,要求

but for 倘没有,要不是

call for要求;需要;邀请

care for 照顾,照料,喜欢

except for 除了……外

go in for 从事于;酷爱;追求

head for 朝……方向走去

in return (for) 作为(对……的)回报,交换

long for 渴望

look for 寻找,寻求;指望,期待

make for 走向,向……前进;导致,促成

make up for 补偿,弥补

pay for 付款;偿还

send for 派人去请;召唤;索取

stand for 是……的缩写,代表,意味着;主张,支持

take…for 认为……是,把……看成是

take for granted 认为……理所当然;(因视作当然而)对……不予以重视

wait for 等候,等待

watch out for 密切注意;戒备,提防

apart from 除……之外(别无);除……之外(尚有)

aside from除……之外(尚有)

far from 远离,远非

from time to time 不时,有时

learn from 学习,向……学习

result from 是(由)……造成

tell…from 辨别,分辨

in a hurry 急于,匆忙

in a sence 在某种意义上

in a way 在某种程度上,从某一点来看

in a word 简而言之,一句话

in addition to 除……之外(还)

in advance 预先,事先

in all 总共,共计

in any case 无论如何,不管怎样

in brief 简单地说

in case 假使,以防万一

in case of 假如,如果发生;防备

in charge of 负责,主管

in common 共有的,共用的

in detail 详细地

in effect 实际上,事实上

in fact 事实上,其实

in favour of 支持,赞成

in front of 在……前面

in general 一般来说,大体上

in half 分成两半

in honour of 向……表示敬意;为纪念,为庆祝

in no case 无论如何不,决不

in no time 立即,马上

in no way 决不

in order 按顺序;整齐

in order to 为了(做某事)

in other words 换句话说,也就是说

in part 部分地

in particular 特别,尤其

in person 亲自

in proportion to 与……成比例

in public 公开地,当众地

in regard to 关于

in relation to 有关,涉及

in short 简言之,总之

in sight 看得见,在视线之内;在望

in spite of 不管,不顾

in the course of 在……期间,在……过程中

in the end 最后,终于

in the face of 在……前面;不管,即使

in the future 在将来

in (the) light of 鉴于,由于

in the way 挡道,妨碍某人

in time 及时;最后,终于

in touch 联系,接触

in turn 依次地,轮流的;转而,反过来

in vain 徒劳,白费力

instead of 替代,而不是

bear…in mind 记住(某事)

break in 破门(窗)而入;打断,插嘴

check in 办理登记手续,报到

cut in 打断,插嘴;(汽车)超车抢档

draw in (火车、汽车等)进站

drop in 顺便(非正式)访问

fall in love with 爱上某人

fill in/out 填写

get in 进入,参加;收(获),收回;插入(话)

hand in 提交;递上

keep in mind 记住

give in 屈服,让步

have in mind 记在心里;考虑到,想到

lie in 在于

once in a while 偶尔

persist in 坚持

play a part (in) (在……中)扮演角色;(在……中)起作用

pull in (车)进站;(船)到岸

result in 引起,导致;理解

take in 欺骗;领会,理解

take part in 参加,参与

turn in 上床睡觉;交还,上交

成教信息:成人高考专升本考试英语重点词组(

on a small/large scale 小(大)规模地

on account of 由于,因为

on average 平均;通畅,普通

on behalf of 代表,为了

on board 在船(或车、飞机等)上

on business 因事,因公

on duty 值班,当班

on earth 究竟,到底

on foot 步行

on guard 站岗,警戒

on one’s own 独立地,靠自己地

on purpose 故意地,有目的地

on sale 出售;廉价出售

on second thoughts 经重新考虑,继而一想

on the contrary 正相反

on the one hand 一方面

on the other hand 另一方面

on the spot 在现场,当场

on the whole 总的来说,大体上

on time 准时

and so on 等等

call on 访问,拜访;呼吁,号召

carry on 继续

come on (表示劝说、鼓励等)来吧,走吧;开始

count on 依靠,指望

get on 骑上(马、自行车等),登上(车、船、飞机等);有进展

get on with 与……友好相处;继续干

go on 继续下去,进行

hang on 抓紧不放;坚持下去;(电话不挂)等一会儿

hold on 握住不放;坚持;(打电话用语)等一会儿

keep an eye on 留意,照看

keep on 继续进行,反复地做

live on 靠……生活;以……为食

look down on/upon 蔑视,看不起

look on 旁观;观看

pass on 把……传给别人

put on 穿上;上演

switch off/on (用开关)关掉/开启

take on 承担,从事;呈现(面貌)

touch on 谈及,提及

try on 试穿

turn on 开,旋开(电灯等)

wait on 服侍(某人)

off duty 下班

break off 中断,中止

call off 取消

carry off 拿走,夺去

cut off 切掉;切断;阻隔

get off (从……)下来。逃脱惩罚

give off 发出或放出(光、热、气味等)

let off 排放;放(炮),开(枪)

pay off 还清(债款);取得成功

put off 推迟,拖延

see……off 为某人送行

set off 出发,起程;激起,引起

show off 炫耀;卖弄

take off 脱下(衣帽等);起飞

turn off 关(水源等);拐弯

out of 在……外;离开……,缺乏

out of breath 喘不过气来

out of control 失去控制

out of date 过时的,不用的

out of order 出障碍;秩序混乱

out of place 不再适当的位置;不相称的,格格不入的

out of practice 久不练习,荒疏

out of sight 看不见,在视野之外

out of the question 毫无可能

out of question (现在少用)无疑地

break out (战争等)爆发;使逃脱,使逃走

bring out 使……显示出来;出版

carry out 执行,贯彻;进行(到底)

check out 结帐后离开,办妥手续离开

come out 出版,发表;显现,出现;结果是

cut out 删掉,割去

drop out 退学,退出

fall out 脱落;争吵,闹翻

figure out 计算出;估计

find out 查明;找到;发现

give out 分发;发出(气味等)

go out 熄灭;外出

hand out 分发,散发

die out 消失,灭绝

lay out 布置,安排,设计;摆出,展开

leave out 忽略,遗漏;省略

let out 放掉(水等),发出

look out 留神,注意

make out 写出,开列;看出,辨认出

pick out 选出;辨认出,分辨出

point out 指出,指明

pull out 拔出,抽出;(车、船等)驶出

put out 熄灭;关(灯);公布,出版

run out (of) 用完,耗尽

set out 动身,起程;开始

stand out 引人注目;杰出,出色

try out 试用,试验

turn out 关掉(收音机等);生产,制造;驱逐;结果是

wear out 穿破,用坏;(使)疲乏,(使)耗尽

wipe out 彻底摧毁,消灭

work out 算出;想出,制定出

all over 到处,遍及;全部结束

get over 克服(困难等);从(疾病、失望、震惊等)中恢复过来

go over 检查;复习

hand over 交出,移交

have an advantage over 胜于,优于

look over 仔细检查,细看;察看,巡视

over and over 一再地,再三地

run over (跑)过去;撞倒;溢出

take over 接受,接管;借用,承袭

think over 仔细考虑

turn over 仔细考虑

up to (数量上)多达;(时间上)直到;取决于

uo to date 现代化的,切合目前状况的

back up 支持;倒退

be made up of 由……组成,由……构成

break up 打碎;终止,结束

bring up 教育,培养

build up 建立;增强,增进

call up 打电话,召集

catch up with 赶上

cheer up 高兴起来,振作起来

clear up 清理;使变清洁;放晴

come up 出现,走上前来

come up with 追上,赶上;提出

draw up 起草,制订

dress up 穿上盛装,精心打扮

end up 结束,告终

face up to 大胆面对

get up 起床;起立

give up 放弃;投降

go up 上升,(物价等)上涨

grow up 成熟;成年;发展

hang up 把……挂起来;挂断(电话)

hold up 举起;耽搁,延迟

hurry up (使)赶快,匆匆完成

keep up with 跟上,不落后

line up 排队,使排成一行

live up to 无愧于;做到;符合

look up 向上看;(在字典中)查出

make up 组成,构成;编造,虚伪;化妆

make up one’s mind 下定决心,打定主意

mix up 搅和;混淆

pick up 捡起;(车等)中途搭人;学会

put up 举起;建造;张贴

put up with 忍受,容忍(讨厌的人)

ring up 打电话

set up 创立,建立,为……作好准备;暑期,建造

show up 来到,露面

stand up 起立;(论点、论据等)站得住脚

sum up 总结,概括

take up 开始从事;占去占据

turn up 出现,来到;开大,调大

use up 用完,耗尽

warm up (使)暖起来;(使)变热

wash up 洗餐具;洗手洗脸

with regard to 关于,至于

with respect to 关于,至于

deal with 兑付,处理;论述,涉及

do away with 废除,去掉

have nothing to do with 和……毫无关系

have (sonething) to do with 和……(有点)关系

成教信息:成人高考英语语法的15个常考点

一、动词时态及语态题(大家应该记住我所讲过的九种时态,特别是其中的过去完成,过去进行时,客观真理要用一般现在时等)

1、The manager told us that this factory was built in 1958.

2、By the time we got there, the play had already begun.

3、When I was a child, I knew that the earth turns about its axis.

4、When Mr.Delay got home after a day’s exhausting work, his wife and children were sleeping.

二、非谓语动词题(特别是现在分词与过时分词的区别,大家一定要弄明白主动与被动这对最最重要的区别,要求大家多看我的上课笔记)

1、The film showed last night was very moving. (不用moved,大家别忘了-ed形容词和-ing形容词的区别)

2、Having finishing his lecture, the teacher asked if anyone wished to asked a question.

3、The problem being discussed is very important.

4、Given more time, we are sure to finish it.

5、Will you please make yourself known to everyone here

三、It作形式主语及形式宾语题(这也是一个常考点,it本身是没有意思的,注意it还可以指时间,天气等。)

1、It is difficult to study English well.

2、We think it is important to pass the exam.

四、强调句型(大家要记住的是it is (was)……。that…。,如果前面是it iswas 后面往往选用that,当然强调人的时候也可用who)

1、It was at an evening party that I first saw her.

2、It is what you will do that is important.

3、When was it that he bought a new car

五、倒装句型

全部倒装句(这种全部倒装题历年只考过一次,考得最多的都是下面的部分倒装)

1、Stop talking! There comes the teacher.

部分倒装句(如果选项里面有两个主谓倒装了,两个没有,我们一般要在倒装里做选择)

1、So badly was he hurt in the accident that he had to be sent to hospital.

2、Not only does he study well, but also he is always ready to help others.

3、Mary has done well in the English exam. So she has. She always does well in the exam.

六、从句中选择关系词题(重点在定语从句,多看笔记, becausesincenow thatasfor; so…that…such… that…)

1、It was in so friendly a way that he talked with us.

2、Oct.15, 2005 is a day when we will take our English examination.

3、We want to buy the same book as you are reading.

4、The sun heats the earth, which is very important to living things.

七、虚拟语气(我们要记住与现在,过去,将来相反的三种情况,特别是与过去相反的情况最常考,再有就是wishas if 后面所接的三种情况,还有一个常考点在suggest,demand,require,order等表示建议,要求,命令的词后面加从句时,从句里谓语要用(should)+动词原形,如果是被动则用(should +be +动词过去分词)

1、I would have done it better if I had had more time.

2、I wish you would go with us tomorrow.

3、I suggest that we (should )adopt a different policy.

4、Had it not been for your help, we would never have been able to get over the difficulties.

八、情态动词题(除了掌握常见情态动词基本用法外,常考点在三种表推测的情况,分别为must表对现在事情的肯定推测 ,can’t表对现在事实的否定推测, must have +v-ed表示对过去事实的肯定推测,而则表示过去应该做某事而没有做)

1、The ground is so wet, it must have rained last night.

2、She must be a doctor, I think.

3、I should have called you last week, but I was too busy then.

九、几组形容词及副词区别题(注意比较级、最高级、倍数表达; likelypossibleprobable; worthworthy; too muchmuch too; alreadyyet等)

1、His books are three time as many as my books.

2、The Nile river is the longest river in the world.

3、It is much too hot tonight.

4、The harder he worked, the happier he felt.

十、主谓一致题(往往出题者都是考谓语动词选单数这种情况,如each,every,everyone这样的词作主语以及Mary, like many other girls likes listening to music这样的题)

1、The moral of the officers and crew was very high.

2、Each boy and each girl in the city is asked to go to school.

3、Neither the quality nor the prices have changed.(近位原则)

十一、动词及动词词组区别题(常考的有raiserisearisearose; spendcosttakepayafford; woundinjurehurtdamage; findfindoutdiscoverinvent; hitstrikeringbeat; tellsayspeaktalk; joinjoin intake part in等以及我所讲过的动词短语)

1、Can you tell the difference between these two words

2、He joined the army three years ago.

十二、主句用将来时,从句则用一般现在时(或现在完成时)表将来题

1、They will leave the classroom when they have finished writing.

2、We will start to work as soon as our teacher comes.

十三、名词所有格以及名词后面有限定时则该名词前一定要加定冠词the题(名词的格有以下两种情况,Tom’book, 以及 the books of our school,特别是用of表示的所有格我们一定要习惯这种表达)

1、Beijing is the capital of China.

2、He can’t have the expience of all of the world.

十四、常用介词区别题(如on, in, except besides, within, without, through等)

1、You should write in ink not with your pencil.

2、He pulled her into the train by the arm.

3、by bustrainair…。 On foot, on the farm, in the morningafternoonevening, at nightnoon

十五、常考代词题(常考的有otherothers, anotherthe other; sometimessome timesometime; thatwhich; thatwhat, eitherneitheror; tooalsoeither; manymucha great deal ofa great number ofa great amount of; a fewfewlittlea little; as long asas far as; so long asso far as )

1、That you don’t like him is none of my business.

2、The weather in the north is much colder than that in the south in January.

3、He must be a worker. I think so.

2011年成人高考英语写作七个得高分原则

一、长短句原则

工作还得一张一驰呢,老让读者读长句,累死人!写一个短小精辟的句子,相反,却可以起到画龙点睛的作用。而且如果我们把短句放在段首或者段末,也可以揭示主题:

As a creature, I eat; as a man, I read. Although one action is to meet the primary need of my body and the other is to satisfy the intellectual need of mind, they are in a way quite similar.

如此可见,长短句结合,抑扬顿挫,岂不爽哉?牢记!

强烈建议:在文章第一段(开头)用一长一短,且先长后短;在文章主体部分,要先用一个短句解释主要意思,然后在阐述几个要点的时候采用先短后长的句群形式,定会让主体部分妙笔生辉!文章结尾一般用一长一短就可以了。

二、主题句原则

国有其君,家有其主,文章也要有其主。否则会给人造成“群龙无首”之感!相信各位读过一些破烂文学,故意把主体隐藏在文章之内,结果造成我们稀里糊涂!不知所云!所以奉劝各位一定要写一个主题句,放在文章的开头(保险型)或者结尾,让读者一目了然,必会平安无事!

特别提示:隐藏主体句可是要冒险的!

To begin with, you must work hard at your lessons and be fully prepared before the exam(主题句)。 Without sufficient preparation, you can hardly expect to answer all the questions correctly.

三、一二三原则

领导讲话总是第一部分、第一点、第二点、第三点、第二部分、第一点…

如此罗嗦。可毕竟还是条理清楚。考官们看文章也必然要通过这些关键性的“标签”来判定你的文章是否结构清楚,条理自然。破解方法很简单,只要把下面任何一组的词汇加入到你的几个要点前就清楚了。

1)first, second, third, last(不推荐,原因:俗)

2)firstly, secondly, thirdly, finally(不推荐,原因:俗)

3)the first, the second, the third, the last(不推荐,原因:俗)

4)in the first place, in the second place, in the third place,lastly(不推荐,原因:俗)

5)to begin with, then, furthermore, finally(强烈推荐)

6)to start with, next, in addition, finally(强烈推荐)

7)first and foremost, besides, last but not least(强烈推荐)8)most important of all, moreover, finally

9)on the one hand, on the other hand(适用于两点的情况)

10)for one thing, for another thing(适用于两点的情况)

建议:不仅仅在写作中注意,平时说话的时候也应该条理清楚!

四、短语优先原则

写作时,尤其是在考试时,如果使用短语,有两个好处:其一、用短语会使文章增加亮点,如果老师们看到你的文章太简单,看不到一个自己不认识的短语,必然会看你低一等。相反,如果发现亮点—精彩的短语,那么你的文章定会得高分了。其二、关键时刻思维短路,只有凑字数,怎么办?用短语是一个办法!比如:

I cannot bear it.

可以用短语表达:I cannot put up with it.

I want it.

可以用短语表达:I am looking forward to it.

这样字数明显增加,表达也更准确。

五、多实少虚原则

原因很简单,写文章还是应该写一些实际的东西,不要空话连篇。这就要求一定要多用实词,少用虚词。我这里所说的虚词就是指那些比较大的词。比如我们说一个很好的时候,不应该之说nice这样空洞的词,应该使用一些诸如generous,

humorous, interesting, smart, gentle, warm-hearted, hospital 之类的形象词。再比如:

走出房间,general的词是:walk out of the room

但是小偷走出房间应该说:slip out of the room

小姐走出房间应该说:sail out of the room

小孩走出房间应该说:dance out of the room

老人走出房间应该说:stagger out of the room

所以多用实词,少用虚词,文章将会大放异彩!

六、多变句式原则

1)加法(串联)

都希望写下很长的句子,像个老外似的,可就是怕写错,怎么办,最保险的写长句的方法就是这些,可以在任何句子之间加and,

但最好是前后的句子又先后关系或者并列关系。比如说:

I enjoy music and he is fond of playing guitar.

如果是二者并列的,我们可以用一个超级句式:

Not only the fur coat is soft, but it is also warm.

其它的短语可以用:

besides, furthermore, likewise, moreover

2)转折(拐弯抹角)

批评某人缺点的时候,我们总习惯先拐弯抹角说说他的优点,然后转入正题,再说缺点,这种方式虽然阴险了点,可毕竟还比较容易让人接受。所以呢,我们说话的时候,只要在要点之前先来点废话,注意二者之间用个专这次就够了。

The car was quite old, yet it was in excellent condition.

The coat was thin, but it was warm.

成考专升本英语写作100个必背佳句

由于国内英语教学中写作训练薄弱,大批学生只会单词,不懂语境和搭配,出现了各种可笑的中文思维现象。我们写作教学中专门强调语感的培养,除单词记忆和句型操练之外,在此专门选编了300个闪光的英文句子,涉及面很广,配有译文并用黑体标出了句子衔接的主干框架。读者可以在阅读中仔细领会每句话表达的妙处,遣词造句的独特设计。也可以作为写作的范本加以背诵,提高自己的语感和闪光点意识。

1.When asked about the ongoing uproar involving U.S. President Bill Clinton , most people say the affair involves a purely private matter . But many other people regard his actions as deplorable . I personally think the president committed impeachable offences .

当被问及对现在有关美国总统比尔?克林顿的沸沸扬扬的议论有什么看法时,大多数人认为这种暧昧关系纯属私事。但是,还有很多人认为他的行为应当受到谴责。我个人认为总统犯了这些过错,应该被指控。

2. When it comes to the increasing use of motor vehicles in Beijing , some people think that use should be limited . Others argue that the opposite is true . There is probably some truth to both arguments,but emission controls must be instituted regardless of the number of vehicles.

涉及北京机动车使用量增加这一问题,有的人认为应该限制使用。另一些人持相反意见。也许双方的观点都有一定道理,但是,无论车辆多少,必须对废气排放实行控制。

3. There is a general debate nowadays about the problem of itinerant workers . Those who object to the rising migrant population argue that increasing numbers lead to rising crime rates and harm social stability . They believe that strict limits should be placed on migrants entering China ‘ s cities . But people who favor the influx of the cheap labor force , on the other hand , maintain that migrants are needed to support the massive urban infrastructure construction program .

目前,针对流动工人的问题展开了普遍的争论。反对流动工人增加的人认为这会导致犯罪率升高,从而危害社会稳定。他们主张应该严格限制进入中国城市的流动工人。但是,另一方面,支持廉价劳动力流入的人主张,为了支持大规模的城市基础设施建设规划,流动人口是必需的。

4. It is widely acknowledged that extensive deforestation contributed to heavy summer flooding . Experts argue that China must introduce a massive afforestation program . But I doubt whether afforestation alone will solve the problem .

人们普遍认为过度砍伐造成了夏季特大洪水。专家认为中国必须推行大规模的植树造林计划。但我对仅仅植树造林就能解决问题表示怀疑。

5. Most people are of the opinion that wealth provides solutions to all problems . But in spite of the material benefits wealth provides , I believe one should abandon the pursuit of materialism and instead concentrate on the pursuit of happiness .

大多数人认为财富为所有问题提供解决的办法。但是,我认为,尽管财富提供物质上的利益,一个人应该放弃物质至上的追求,而是集中精力追求幸福。

6. Many people believe that capital punishment deters crime . But although criminologists have conducted exhaustive research regarding the subject , little evidence exists to support the claim .

很多人相信极刑能阻止犯罪。但是,虽然刑事学家就这一课题做了详尽的研究,几乎没有证据能支持这种说法。

7. An increasing number of people are joining the “ Information Age ” via the Internet . In reaction to the phenomenon , some say the Internet has removed barrters and provided people with immediate access to the world . But do they raelize that rapidly advancing information technology can also lead to intrusions of privacy ?

越来越多的人通过互联网进入了“信息时代”。针对这一现象,一些人认为互联网消除了障碍,为人们提供了与世界即时链接的途径。但是,他们有没有意识到迅速发展的信息技术也能导致侵犯隐私?

8. The use of guanxi is a widespread method for conducting business , but is it a wise one ? The method is now being challenged by more and more people .利用关系是做生意的普遍做法,但这种做法明智吗?现在,越来越多的人对这种方法提出了质疑。

9. These days we often hear about the widening gap between the rich and poor . Some argue the developed world has totally ignored the problem . But has it ? Close examination fails to bear out the argument .

最近,我们经常听到贫富差距扩大了的说法。一些人认为发达世界完全忽略了这个问题。事实是这样吗?细致的调查无法证实这一观点。

10. We ‘ re often told that the world is tethering on the brink of destruction . But is this really the case ?

我们经常被告知世界处于毁灭的边缘。但事实真是这样吗?

11. One of the pressing problema facing our nation ( China ) today is overcoming disparities in urban and rural income levels .

我们国家(中国)如今面临的紧迫问题之一是克服城乡收入水平之间的差距。

12. One of the most serious problems many people talk about centers on the lack of adequate housing space .

许多人谈论的一个最严重的问题集中在缺乏足够的居住空间。

13. Perhaps the most dangerous phenomenon gripping the nation today is official corruption , which is pervasive in all levels of government .

也许当今困扰国家的最危险的现象是遍布各级政府的官员腐败。

14. Inflation is yet another new and bitter truth we must learn to face .

通货膨胀又是一个我们必须学会面对的痛苦的新情况。

15. The rapid expansion of urban areas has in many cases encroached on valuable cultivatable land , and led to a general recognition that development must not be carried at the cost of agriculture . The government has attached greater importance to the problem and an increasing number of redundant projects are being terminated .

城区的迅速扩大在很多情况下侵占了宝贵的可耕地,使人们普遍认识到发展不能以牺牲农业为代价。政府更加重视这个问题,越来越多的不必要的工程被终止。

16. There is a growing worldwide awareness of the need for strengthened environmental protection .

世界上越来越多的人认识到加强环境保护的必要性。

17. There has been a dramatic increase in the spread of HIV/AIDS in recent years , with a new study projecting that the dreaded disease will affect over 30 million people worldwide by the year 2005 .

近年来,艾滋病蔓延的幅度进一步扩大,一项新的研究预测,到2005年,世界上有超过三千万人将感染这一可怕的疾病。

18. Working with the disabled cannot help but leave one impressed with their indefatigable desire .

与残疾人一起工作使一个人不得不对他们坚持不懈的渴望印象深刻。

19. Perhaps no issues are more controversial than euthanasia and abortion , both of which involve taking the life of a human being .

也许没有问题比安乐死和人工流产更有争议性,它们都涉及结束一个人的生命。

20. Never before in history has the issue of overpopulation been more evident than now .

历史上,人口过剩的问题从来没有比现在更加突出。

21. Perhaps it is time to reexamine the idea that college degrees are a guarantee of intelligence .

也许现在是应该重新考虑大学为是智力的保证这种想法的时候了。

22. A growing number of people are beginning to realize that wealth is not the sole prerequisite for happiness .

越来越多的人开始意识到财富不是幸福的惟一先决条件。

23. In spite of the extraordinary progress made in science and technology , problems remain in terms of guaranteeing that achievements benefit the greatest number of people .

尽管科学技术取得了非凡的进步,但是在保证进步成果使尽可能多的人受益这方面还存在一些问题。

24. A famous thinker once wrote that “ the greatest threat to mankind is mankind itself ! ” If this is indeed the case , then the current situation should make us ponder our futuer existence .

一位著名的思想家曾经写道:“对人类最大的威胁是人类自身!”如果事实确实如此,那么,现状应该促使我们对我们未来的生存进行思索了。

25. U.S. President Harry Truman once remarked : “ The buck stops here ! ” His view has been confirmed by numerous world leaders who have assumed full responsibility for their actions .

美国总统杜鲁门曾经说过:“责任止于此!”(意为勿再把责任往别处推,这是杜鲁门办公室桌上的座右铭)他的观点得到了很多对自己的行动承担完全责任的世界领袖的肯定。

26. Large families were once seen as a blessing . Today , however , things are changing and an increasing number of Chinese parents realize that fewer is better .

大家庭曾经被看做是一种福气。然而,今天,情况改变了,越来越多的中国家长意识到家庭成员越少越好。

27. People used to place total reliance on the government . The so-called “ iron rice bowl ” prevailed in the past , but things are quite different today .

过去,人们习惯完全依靠政府。以前盛行所谓的“铁饭碗”,但今天的情况有很大的不同。

28. Several years ago , Chinese streets were filled with people wearing identical drab clothing . Today , however , things are quite different and the streets are awash with people wearing fashionable bright colored outfits . Why has the change taken place ?

许多年前,中国大街上的人都穿一样的灰褐色衣服。然而,今天的情况大不一样了,街上满是一个个身穿色彩艳丽的时髦衣服的人。出现这种变化的原因是什么呢?

29. Years of observing human behavior has enabled me to conclude that the major difference between mediocrity and success lies solely with the inpidual concerned . Successful inpiduals consistently seek advancement , while their less industrious contemporaries are merely content with the status quo .

对人们行为的多年观察使我能够得出这样的结论:平庸和成功的主要区别仅仅在于相关的个人。成功的个人不断寻求进步,而他们比较懒惰的同时代人仅仅满足于现状。

30. Traditional way of thinking have changed dramatically . The pendulum has swung and people are exhibiting greater open-mindedness and a burning desire to detemine their own destiny .

传统的思维方式有了显著的变化。舆论发生了剧变,人们表现出更开放的思想以及决定他们自己命运的强烈愿望。

31. There has been undesirable trend in recent years towards the worship of money . A recent survey showed that X percent of respondents ranked getting rich as their top priority , compared to X percent only a few years ago . Why do people fail to realize that wealth does not necessarily bring happiness ?

近年来出现了对社会有害的拜金主义倾向。最近的一项调查表明,X%的调查对象把致富作为他们的首选,相比之下,就在几年前,只有X%的人这样想。为什么人们没能意识到财富不一定带来幸福呢?

32. Some months ago , a friend of mine was killed in a tragic automobile accident involving a drunk driver . The incident was far from rare , and was in fact typical of thousands of cases involving people dricing under the influence of alcohol .

几个月前,我的一个朋友死于一场与酒后驾车有关的悲惨车祸。这件事情一点儿也不罕见,事实上是数以千计的案件的典型,这些案件与在酒精作用下开车的人有关。

33. I recently read a newspaper article on the rampant spread of child abuse . The deplorable problem of the widespread abuse of innocent children has aroused public concern nationwide .

最近,我在报纸上读到一篇关于虐待儿童现象变得猖獗的文章。普遍虐待无辜儿童的问题令人深感遗憾,它已经引起了全国公众的关注。

34. Should parents spare the rod and spoil the child ? Opinions concerning strict parental discipline vary widely . Some view strict discipline as nothing more than a form of abuse , while others argue it is an essential factor for instilling appropriate social behavior .

家长应不应该闲了棍子、惯了孩子?针对严厉的家教的看法大相径庭。有的人就是把严厉的管教看成一种虐待,而另外的人认为这是逐渐灌输得体的社会行为的要素。

35. What do you think of the increasing openness accompanying the ongoing sexual revolution ? Do you ever fantasize ? Answers to these questions should be based on a determination between appropriate and inappropriate behavior .

你如何看待对现在的性革命越来越开放的态度?你曾经想像过吗?回答这些问题之前应先界定得体和不得体的行为。

36. Why do some governments persist in spending billions of dollars on space exploration when starvation and poverty continue to grip many countries throughout the world ? This particular question is being raised by an ever increasing number of people .

既然世界上许多国家仍被饥饿和贫困所困扰,为什么有的政府还坚持花费数十亿美元用于太空探索?现在越来越多的人提出这个问题。

37. Judging from the reams of evidence presented , we can safely conclude that the Three Gorges Project will change the lives of an untold number of people forever .

根据现有的大量证据,我们可以有把握地得出这样的结论:三峡工程将永远改变无数人的生活。

38. The ample evidence presented enables us to reasonably conclude that the scourge of AIDS will be brought under control in the foreseeable future .

提出的充分证据使我们能够合理地得出这样的结论:艾滋病的祸害在可预见的将来就能得到控制。

39. We must seek immediate solutions for problems leading to the rapid depletion of the earth’s ozone layer . If allowed to proceed unchecked , the problem will undoubtedly exacerbate global warming and threaten life as we know it today .

我们必须寻求立即解决引起地球臭氧层快速损耗的问题的办法。如果任其自由发展,这一问题无疑会加剧全球升温,并且正如今天我们所知道的那样危及生命。

40. Quite obviously , immediate action is needed to extricate 80 million Chinese people from the grips of poverty in order to remove the danger of social unrest and ensure continuing stability .

很明显,需要立即采取行动使八千万中国人摆脱贫困,从而消除社会动荡的危险,确保持续的稳定。

41. China needs to reexamine the results of political and social modernization in order to ascertain the benefits and indeed the detrimental aspects from a new perspective . Otherwise , various perceived accomplishments might in fact prove to be far from beneficial .

中国需要重新检查政治和社会现代化带来的结果以便从新的角度明确它们的好处,甚至是有害的方面。否则,许多我们以为取得的成就实际上可能完全不会带来好处。

42. It is essential to heed warnings of potentially catastrophic consequences associated with the Year 2000 computer bug and , in turn , to attach top priority to finding effective solutions to ensure a smooth transition into the new century .

我们必须注意有关计算机千年虫可能带来的灾难性结果的警告,并且相应地优先考虑寻找有效的解决办法以确保顺利过渡到新世纪。

43. It is high time we put an end to the deplorable practice of infanticide.

我们早该杜绝杀婴这种应遭谴责的做法。

44. There is little doubt that immediate action is required to eliminate the scourge of corruption once and forever .

毫无疑问,必须立即采取行动彻底消除腐败的祸害。

45. In short , we must work diligently to make the world a better place for coming generations . We must not persist in pursuits harmful to the environment .

简而言之,我们必须勤奋工作,为了下一代把世界变成更美好的地方。我们不应该坚持对环境有害的追求。

46. We must avoid overindulgence and conspicuous consumption . We must instead continue to recognize the benefits of thrift in order to protect our newfound prosperity .

我们必须避免过分放纵和铺张浪费。相反,我们应该继续发扬节俭的优点以守护我们新获得的繁荣。

47. It is absolutely essential to reverse the irrational misuse of nonrenewable resources . For example , fuel-efficient motor vehicles must be developed to reduce oil consumption and alternative energy sources must be found to replace coal .

彻底改变对不可再生资源的非理性滥用是绝对有必要的。例如,必须开发节能的机动车减少汽油的消耗量,并且必须找到可替代能源取代煤。

48. While achieving success is easier said than done , persistence does in fact pay off . One of the most important traits of a successful person is self-confidence , another is desire , and still another is determination .

获得成功说起来比做起来容易,然而坚持不懈确实会有好结果。成功人士的最重要的特征之一是自信,第二是渴望,还有一个是决心。

49. Recognizing a problem is the first step in finding a solution .

认识到问题是找到解决办法的第一步。

50. Many of the explanations offered thus far are at least to a certain extent valid , but none fully address the problem and the issue must be examined in a wider context .

目前提供的许多解释至少在一定程度上是正确的,但是,没有一个解释能完全处理问题,这件事情必须放在更广阔的背景中考虑。

51. There are no immediate solutions for reversing the Asian financial crisis , but convincing affected nations to practice fiscal restraint will be highly beneficial .

没有能立即扭转亚洲金融危机的办法,但是,它使受到影响的国家相信实行财政控制将大有益处。

52. Immediate solutions for solving problems surrounding poverty remain elusive . However , public recognition of the necessity to provide a better quality of life for millions of people will represent the first step in finding effective solutions .

立即解决贫困问题的办法仍然是难以捉摸的。然而,公众认识到为数百万人提供更高质量的生活的必要性是找到有效的解决办法的第一步。

53. What dose the future hold if mankind persists in wasting natural resources ? While no one knows for sure , scientists do exhibit a degree of certainty when predicting that future generations will face a dramatically diffrernt world .

如果人类继续浪费自然资源,未来将会有什么贮藏?没有人知道明确的答案,但是,科学家在预测后代将面对一个迥然不同的世界时确实有一定的把握。

54. Reversing undesirable social trends will be far from an easy task and will require a dramatic change in attitudes . A keen awareness of right from wrong is essential for determining appropriate social behavior .

扭转不好的社会趋势远非一件易事,看法需要有巨大的变化。对正误的深刻认识是判定得体的社会行为所必需的。

55. We owe a debt of gratitude to the many inpiduals who dedicated their lives to making the world a better place . However , we must not rest on their accomplishments , but must instead work assiduously to record even greater achievements .

我们应该感谢许多为把世界变得更美好而奉献一生的人。然而,我们不能依靠他们的成绩,而必须努力工作,取得更辉煌的成就。

56. The two major challenges facing China today center on maintaining sustained economic growth and feeding its growing population of over 1.2 billion people with only seven percent of the world’s cultivable land . Despite the monumental difficulties involved , Chinese people will undoubtedly exhibit their indefatigable resilience and achieve great success in both regards .

现在,中国面临的两大挑战是保持持续的经济增长和靠世界上仅仅百分之七的可耕地养活仍在增长的12亿人口。尽管遇到的困难很大,中国人无疑会表现出不知疲倦的活力,在两方面都取得巨大成功。

57. We do , in fact , have a long way to go to reach our final goal , but achieving some remains well within the realm of possibility .

事实上,我们达到最终的目标还有很长的路要走,但是,取得一些成绩还是可能做到的。

58. The time is right for us to take full advantage of ample existing opportunities .

这正是我们充分利用大量现有机会的时候。

59. While it remains to be seen whether or not environmental deterioration can be controlled , the current prospects are far from encouraging . People around the world must act immediately to prevent the situation from deteriorating even further .

环境恶化是否能得到控制这个问题仍然没有答案,但目前的前景一点儿也不乐观。全世界的人必须立即行动,防止情况进一步恶化。

60. The methodology suggested may not guarantee ultimate success , but the eventual pay-off could well be worth the effort . Achieving even partial success will benefit mankind and contribute to creating a better world .

提出的方法不一定保证最终的成功,但最后的结果非常值得付出努力。即使只获得部分成功也会使人类受益,有利于创造一个更美好的世界。

61. Admittedly , ensuring sustainable development will require a certain level of sacrifice and arduous efforts on the part of all people . Nonetheless , the accrued returns will both strengthen the nation and ensure a better life for all Chinese citizens .

诚然,确保持续的发展需要人们做出一定程度的牺牲和辛勤努力。但是,积累的成果不仅能使国家更强大,而且能保证中国公民过上更美好的生活。

62. The rapid emergence of homes for senior citizens represents a sharp pergence from the traditional Chinese practice of maintaining the nuclear family at all costs .

老人疗养院的迅速出现体现了与中国传统的不惜一切代价维持核心家庭的做法的显著分歧。

63. Participating in interactive experiences beneficial to all is something that no one should miss . The valuable lessons learned therefrom should not be arbitrarily dismissed , but should instead be treasured .

参加对所有人都有益的互动式体验是任何一个人都不应该错过的。从中获得的宝贵经验不应该任意抛弃,而应该倍加珍惜。

64. Abortion advocates may be correct in their assertion that the practice is a necessary tool of population control , but they seem to neglect the preciousness of human life in its earliest stages .

人工流产的提倡者认为它是控制人口的一种必要手段。他们也许是对的,但他们可能忽略了人的生命在最初阶段的宝贵。

65. Some people assert that nothing is impossible . Such people should get a grip on reality and understand it’s impossible to create another Universe . In more down-to-earth terms , it’s impossible to know with any certainty whether you will live or die tomorrow .

一些人断言没有什么事是不可能的。这些人应该把握现实,知道再造一个宇宙是不可能的。更现实的说法是不可能明确知道明天你会活着还是会死。

66. Two major factors contributed to devastating summer flooding along the Yangtze River and its tributaries . First , erosion resulting from excessive deforestation in the upper reaches of the river and , second ,heavy silting which raised the riverbed in the main channel .

两个主要因素导致了夏季长江及其支流的特大洪水。第一,过度砍伐引起的河流上游的侵蚀,第二,严重的泥沙淤积抬高了主干道的河床。

67. Greed and a total lack of social consciousness have been cited as major reasons for the dramatic rise corruption .

人们认为贪婪和社会意识的彻底缺乏是造成腐败急剧增加的主要原因。

68. There are several reasons for the marked increase in China’s crime rate-the dramatic influx of itinerant workers in urban areas ; declining social values ; and widening disparities between the haves and have-nots .

中国的犯罪率显著升高有很多原因——城区大量流动工人的涌入;社会价值的贬低以及贫富之间日益扩大的差距。

69. Why are an increasing number of elderly Chinese parents living apart from their children ? One reason is the increasing upward mobility of the younger generation . Another is expanding social opportunities for the elderly . Perhaps the main reason , however , centers on dramatic changes in traditional concepts .

为什么越来越多的中国老人不和他们的孩子住在一起?原因之一是年轻一代的上进心增强了。另一个原因是社会上老人的机会增加了。然而,主要的原因可能是传统观念发生了巨大变化。

70. What has sparked the increasing interest in exercise ? For one thing , people have gained a greater awareness of the need for physical fitness . For another , the constantly improving standard of living enables Chinese people to patronize the increasing number of recreational venues . The main thing perhaps centers on the healthcare and psychological benefits exercise provides .

什么引发了人们对锻炼越来越浓的兴趣?一方面,人们更加清楚地意识到保持身体健康的必要性。另一方面,不断提高的生活水平使中国人能够支付增加的娱乐支出。最主要的可能在于锻炼带来的保健和心理上的好处。

71. Identifying the reasons for an emerging phenomenon which involves several complicated factors is far from an easy task . For example , some scientists attribute environmental deterioration to a series of natural factors , while others place the blame solely on inappropriate human behavior .

要找到涉及许多复杂因素的新现象的原因远非一件易事。例如,一些科学家把环境的恶化归结为一些自然因素,而另一些人把责任都推在人类不适当的行为上。

72. One doesn’t have to look far to realize the direct correlation between smoking and cancer .

人们不用花费很大力气就能发现抽烟和癌症之间的直接联系。

73. The explanation for the phenomenon of the rising teenage suicide rate involves many complicated factors . Some attribute the rise to an overemphasis on early success , others point to mounting peer pressure , and still others to confusion over changing social values .

对上升的少年自杀率的解释涉及很多复杂的因素。有的人把上升的原因归结为过分强调少年时期的成功,有的人指出是因为不断增长的同伴之间的压力,还有人认为是对不断变化的社会价值的迷茫造成的。

74. The reasons for antisocial behavior are both complicated and varied . I suggest the phenomenon results from inappropriate role models and the lack of well-defined norms of behavior . However , the main reason is quite likely the continuing degeneration of social values .

反社会行为的原因既复杂又多样。我认为这种现象是不恰当的角色典型和缺少行为规范的很好的定义造成的。然而,主要原因很可能是不断贬低的社会价值。

75. The causes of racial hatred are not readily definable . Sociologists , however , attribute them to the misguided concept of a superior race and an innate mistrust of people of color . Perhaps the main cause is quite simply ignorance .

种族仇恨的起因没有现成的答案。然而,社会学家把原因归结为被误导的更高贵的种族的观念以及天生的对有色人种的不信任。主要原因可能仅仅是因为无知。

76. The scourge of HIV/AIDS currently engulfing the world will quite likely be brought under control within the next few years thanks to the untiring efforts of scientists and researchers worldwide .

现在席卷世界的艾滋病的祸害很有可能由于全世界科学家和研究人员的不懈努力在未来几年内得到控制。

77. The incidence rate of cancer mainly stems from several factors , including inappropriate diets , poor healthcare practices and the lack of early detection . Continuing medical advances and rising awareness do , however , offer promising hope for the future .

癌症的发病率主要由以下诸多因素引起,包括不适当的饮食、不好的保健习惯以及没有及早发现。然而,医学的不断进步和对此不断增强的关注给未来带来了很大的希望。

78. Increased urban pollution levels and the mounting death toll from motor vehicles accidents can mainly be attributed to the glut of automobiles appearing on city roads in recent years . Detrimental factors will quite likely outweigh the benefits of rising automobile usage .

城市人口的增长和车祸中死亡率的增加主要是由于近年内充斥城市道路的汽车。汽车使用量的增加带来的有害因素很有可能超过它的好处。

79. The rising porce rate in China can , at least in part , be attributed to spousal incompatibility , disparities in education levels , changing social attitudes and the increasing upward mobility of the younger generation .

中国上升的离婚率可以,至少部分可以归结为婚姻的不和谐,受教育水平的差异,变化的社会看法以及年轻一代不断增强的上进心。

80. State-owned enterprises are not only failing because of inefficient management , but also because of their inability to awitch operational modes from the former planned economy to the new market economy .

国有企业失败不仅由于低效的管理,也因为他们不能实现从以前的计划经济到新的市场经济的运作模式的转换。

81. Although we do not know the long-term consequences of separation or deprivation , we do know that they can produce acute immediate distress .

虽然我们不知道分离和丧失亲人的长期后果,但我们知道它们能立即引起剧烈的悲痛。

82. One can raedily trace the disappearance of dinosaurs to a major cataclysmic event .

人们很容易把恐龙消失的原因归结为重大的灾难性事件。

83. The raesons for poverty are many , but for the most part center on illiteracy , the lack of opportunities and in some cases pure laziness .

贫困的原因很多,但主要是因为缺少教育、缺少机会,有的情况下纯粹是由于懒惰。

84. Child development depends on a number of factors , both physical and psychological . Correct parental nurturing from infancy through adolescence determines both the physical and mental profile of a mature inpidual .

儿童的发展取决于很多因素,包括生理的和心理的。从婴儿期到青春期的正确的家长教育决定一个成熟的个人的体质及智力的状况。

85. Factors such as self-condidence and ambition , combined with determination and willpower , contribute to eventual success or failure .

自信、雄心,加上决心和毅力等因素是造成最终的成功或失败的原因。

86. Various factors will weigh heavily on China’s eventual entry into the World Trade Organization ( WTO ) . One centers on the total abandonment of protectionism , and the other on the adoption of generally accepted international accounting norms .

许多因素对中国最终加入世界贸易组织(WTO)有很大的影响。因素之一是彻底放弃保护主义,另一个因素是采用普遍接受的国际会计规范。

87. One of the most common failures of people today is to avoid telling the truth . People must realize that avoidance and lying have never in the past and , in fact , never will right a wrong .

如今人类最常见的一个不足是不说真话。人们必须意识到不说真话、说谎话在过去没有,事实上,将来也永远不会变错误为正确。

88. Central planning has , at least in part , been blamed for the current demise of state-owned enterprises . Perhaps , however , the greatest blame should be placed on factors such as grossly inefficient management ; the rampant practice of “ guanxi ” , cronyism and nepotism ; excessively large work forces ; abuses of social benefits ; and without a doubt corruption .

人们认为中央计划至少是现在国有企业失败的部分原因。然而,最主要的原因可能是极低效的管理、关系的普遍运用、任用亲信和裙带关系、大量过剩的劳动力、社会救济金的滥用,当然还包括腐败。

89. A recent survey revealed large disparities in the income levels of male and female workers holding the same position . The determining factor should be qualifications , rather than gender , when determining both the salary and position of an inpidual .

最近的一项调查表明在同样职位上的男性与女性工人的收入水平存在差异。在决定工人工资和职位的时候,决定因素应该是资格,而不是性别。

90. Social finesse , willingness to relocate and language capacity are also determinant factora in assessing job qualifications .

社交手腕、愿意调动以及语言能力也是评估工作资格的决定性因素。

91. The tumultuous Cultural Revolution was chiefly responsible for the searing desire for change in China .

混乱的文化大革命是引起对中国发生变化的极度渴望的主要原因。

92. Traditional beliefs do not in themselves explain the lingering prevalence of outdated concepts in China .

传统信仰本身不能解释过时观念为何仍然在中国普遍存在。

93. Some lay the blame for falling exports squarely on financial turmoil sweeping many Asian countries . The fact of the matter is , however , that proportionate blame should be assigned to the lackadaisical approach to developing new markets , failure to improve product quality and government inaction in the realm of support .

有的人干脆认为造成出口下降的原因是横扫亚洲许多国家的金融危机。然而,事实是一部分原因应归结为开拓新市场的不得力的方法、改进产品质量的失败以及政府没有表示支持的行动。

94. We often ignore the real problem and instead search for a needle in a haystack . Solving problems of any kind requires one to adopt a direct approach which addresses all relevant issues .

我们经常忽略实际问题,而是大海捞针。解决任何类型的问题都需要一个人采取直接的办法处理所有相关事情。

95. Claiming a lack of opportunities is nothing more than a superficial excuse for justifying failure . The fundamental reason for failure is most often the lack of drive on the part of the inpidual involved .

声称缺少机会不过是敷衍失败的借口。通常,失败最根本的原因是相关的个人本身缺乏动力。

96. We can , and quite often do , blame our contemporaries for personal failures , but the fact of the matter is that the root causes for most problems go much deeper .

我们可以,而且经常因个人的失败抱怨我们的同时代人,但是,事实是许多问题的根本原因要深刻得多。

97. The rapidly emerging sexual revolution has been accompanied by many disturbing trends . Perhaps the most serious consequences center on the rapid spread of sexually transmitted diseases ( STDs ) , rising prostitution and the rise in AIDS cases .

伴随着迅速出现的性革命有很多令人烦恼的趋势。最严重的后果可能是性传染病的迅速蔓延、卖淫现象及艾滋病患者的增多。

98. The deep impact of opening to the outside world is readily discernible in a number of areas : the adoption of many Western habits , both good and bad ; changing social and moral values ; the trend towards inpidualism ; and the introduction of state-of-the-art concepts and technology . The key to adopting Western way centers on accepting the good and rejecting the bad .

对外开放的深刻影响在许多方面都能看到:模仿西方的习惯,包括好的和坏的;改变社会和道德价值观;个人主义的趋势;引进已发展的概念和技术。采取西方方式的关键在于取其精华,去其糟粕。

99. The arrival of the so-called “ Information Age ” will undoubtedly have a profound influence on our lives . The task at hand center on using the technology for beneficial purposes , while at the same time preventing intrusions of privacy and use of the electronic highway for deceitful purposes .

所谓“信息时代”的来临无疑将深刻地影响我们的生活。手头的任务主要是利用技术达到有意的目的,同时,防止侵犯隐私或者出于欺骗的目的利用电子高速路。

100. No one can doubt that the reform and opening policies introduced in 1979 have had a profound impact on the lives of Chinese citizens . Changes resulting therefrom have not only impacted the economic system , but the social system as well .

没有人能怀疑1979年推出的改革开放政策对中国公民的生活产生了深刻的影响。由此造成的变化不仅影响了经济体制,而且影响了社会体制。